International development or global development is a broad concept denoting the idea that societies and countries have differing levels of "development" on an international scale. It is the basis for international classifications such as developed country , developing country and least developed country , and for a field of practice and research that in various ways engages with international development processes. There are, however, many schools of thought and conventions regarding which are the exact features constituting the "development" of a country. Historically, development has often been largely synonymous with economic development. More recently, writers and practitioners have begun to discuss development in the more holistic and multi-disciplinary sense of human development. Other related concepts are, for instance, competitiveness , quality of life or subjective well-being. Whereas the latter, at its most basic, denotes simply the idea of change through time, international development has come to refer to a distinct field of practice, industry, and research; the subject of university courses and professional categorisations. It remains closely related to the set of institutions—especially the Bretton Woods Institutions —that arose after the Second World War with a focus on economic growth, alleviating poverty, and improving living conditions in previously colonised countries. Although international relations and international trade have existed for thousands of years, it is only in the past century that international development theory emerged as a separate body of ideas. The second half of the 20th century has been called the 'era of development'. International Development in its very meaning is geared towards colonies that gained independence. The governance of the newly independent states should be constructed so that the inhabitants enjoy freedom from poverty, hunger, and insecurity. It has been argued that this era was launched on January 20, , when Harry S. Truman made these remarks in his inaugural address [9]. We must embark on a bold new program for making the benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas. The old imperialism—exploitation for foreign profit—has no place in our plans. What we envisage is a program of development based on the concept of democratic fair dealing. The launch of the Marshall Plan was another important step in setting the agenda for international development, combining humanitarian goals with the creation of a political and economic bloc in Europe that was allied to the U. This agenda was given conceptual support during the s in the form of modernization theory espoused by Walt Rostow and other American economists. By the late s, dependency theory arose analysing the evolving relationship between the West and the Third World. In response, various parts of the UN system led a counter movement, which in the long run has proved to be successful. By the s, there were some writers for whom development theory had reached an impasse [12] and some academics were "imagining a postdevelopment era. In response to the impasse, the rhetoric of development is now focusing on the issue of poverty, with the metanarrative of modernization being replaced by shorter-term vision embodied by the Millennium Development Goals and the Human Development approach. The critics have suggested that this integration has always been part of the underlying agenda of development. While some critics have been debating the end of development others have predicted a development revival as part of the War on Terrorism. To date, however, there is limited evidence to support the notion that aid budgets are being used to counter Islamic fundamentalism in the same way that they were used 40 years ago to counter communism. There are a number of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved. Such theories draw on a variety of social scientific disciplines and approaches, and include historical theories such as:. This represented the first time that a holistic strategy to meet the development needs of the world has been established, with measurable targets and defined indicators. Because the MDGs were agreed as global targets to be achieved by the global community, they are independent of, but by no means unrelated to, individual national interests. The goals imply that every state has a set of obligations to the world community to meet and that other states, who have achieved those goals, have an obligation to help those who have not. As such they may represent an extension of the concept of human rights. The first seven Millennium Development Goals present measurable goals, while the eighth lists a number of 'stepping stone' goals — ways in which progress towards the first seven goals could be made. Each goal uses indicators based on statistical series collected and maintained by respected organisations in each relevant field usually the UN agency responsible but also the OECD, IMF and World Bank. The MDGs have catalysed a significant amount of action, including new initiatives such as Millennium Promise. Most of these initiatives however work in small scale interventions which do not reach the millions of people required by the MDGs.

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