Treat acid stomach. The discomfort often rises in the chest and may radiate to the neck, throat, or angle of the arm. In about 0. Because of the dangers inherent in an overlooked diagnosis of heart attack, cardiac disease should be considered first in people with unexplained chest pain. People with chest pain related to GERD are difficult to distinguish from those with chest pain due to cardiac conditions. Each condition can mimic the signs and symptomatic findings of the other. Further medical investigation, such as imaging, is often necessary. In a group of people presenting to a hospital with GERD symptoms, 0. Functional heartburn is heartburn of unknown cause. It was found to be present in Heartburn can be caused by several conditions and a preliminary diagnosis of GERD is based on additional signs and symptoms. The chest pain caused by GERD has a distinct 'burning' sensation, occurs after eating or at night, and worsens when a person lies down or bends over. It also is common in pregnant women, and may be triggered by consuming food in large quantities, or specific foods containing certain spices, high fat content, or high acid content. Because some degree of variation in acidity is normal, and small reflux events are relatively common, esophageal pH monitoring can be used to document reflux in real-time. Manometry : in this test, a pressure sensor manometer is passed via the mouth into the esophagus and measures the pressure of the lower oesophageal sphincter directly. Endoscopy : the oesophageal mucosa can be visualized directly by passing a thin, lighted tube with a tiny camera known as an endoscope attached through the mouth to examine the oesophagus and stomach. In this way, evidence of esophageal inflammation can be detected, and biopsies taken if necessary. Since an endoscopy allows a doctor to visually inspect the upper digestive tract the procedure may help identify any additional damage to the tract that may not have been detected otherwise. Biopsy : a small sample of tissue from the oesophagus is removed. It is then studied to check for inflammation, cancer, or other problems. Treatment options include lifestyle changes; medications; and sometimes surgery for those who do not improve with the first two measures. Lifestyle changes include not lying down for three hours after eating, raising the head of the bed, losing weight, avoiding foods which result in symptoms, and stopping smoking. Occasional gastroesophageal reflux without troublesome symptoms or complications is even more common. The classic symptoms of GERD were first described in , when Friedenwald and Feldman commented on heartburn and its possible relationship to a hiatal hernia. GERD sometimes causes injury of the esophagus. These injuries may include one or more of the following:. Symptoms may vary from typical adult symptoms. Children may have one symptom or many; no single symptom is universal in all children with GERD. Most children will outgrow their reflux by their first birthday. However, a small number will not, particularly when a family history of GERD is present. Acid reflux into the mouth can cause breakdown of the enamel, especially on the inside surface of the teeth. A dry mouth, acid or burning sensation in the mouth, bad breath and redness of the palate may occur. Other not so common symptoms of GERD include difficulty in swallowing, water brash which is flooding of the mouth with saliva, chronic cough, hoarse voice, nausea and vomiting. The diagnosis of GERD is usually made when typical symptoms are present. Reflux can be present in people without symptoms and the diagnosis requires both symptoms or complications and reflux of stomach content. Investigation for H. It is the most objective test to diagnose the reflux disease and allows monitoring GERD patients in their response to medical or surgical treatment.

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