The n aturalism It is a current inspired by the adaptation of the principles of natural science to literature and the visual arts; it is based especially on the Darwinian view of nature. Naturalism occurred in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and was a consequence of realism. In turn, realism began in part as a reaction to Romanticism, focusing on the details of everyday existence, and not the inner world. However, in naturalistic literature and visual arts, realism is carried further. The protagonists are mainly people of humble origin, and the tribulations of the lower classes are the focal point. Naturalism was strongly influenced by Marxism and the Theory of Evolution. He tried to apply the scientific rigor and the ideas of those two theories on the artistic representation of society. On the other hand, the impact that this trend has left in the field of literature and the visual arts is enormous. To a large extent, it contributed to the evolution of the modern movement. Naturalistic works expose dark aspects of life, such as prejudice, racism, poverty and disease. It was an effective means of criticizing the social organization of the late nineteenth century. Due to their pessimism and forcefulness, the works often receive criticism; Despite the pessimism, naturalists are generally concerned with improving the human condition. In the 19th century the vast unifying systems of thoughts, as well as the unifying visions of Romanticism, collapsed into a series of one-sided systems, such as utilitarianism, positivism, and social Darwinism. Then a tradition of alternative philosophy emerged, often pessimistic. The various movements of socialism inspired by Marx, Engels, and others were more politically forceful. Science effectively displaced religion and theology as the supreme arbiter of knowledge. The new economic and social forces led to the institutional disappearance of religion. In the framework of great transformations, the natural sciences became the model and the measure of other disciplines. Any hypothesis or question that could not be reduced to a supposedly scientific analysis was rejected. Furthermore, any divine or spiritual agency was dismissed. His scientific and systematic approach to the acquisition of knowledge was based on nature, experience, observation, and empirical verifiability. Thus, both realism and naturalism emerged in the late nineteenth century as literary expressions of this general trend. The precise meaning of the term "naturalism" varies across disciplines. Thus, in literature, philosophy, theology or politics this term is used in a slightly different way. In its broadest sense, it is a doctrine that holds that the physical world operates according to laws discernible through empirical science. That is, that science based on observation and experimentation. The naturalistic method, inspired by the innovations of the 19th century and the experimental sciences, involves an informed and systematic observation of the material world. Likewise, the human being is conceived as another part of this world that is subject, like everything else, to the laws of physics, chemistry and biology. They govern their behavior inexorably. Therefore, it is materialistic and anti idealistic, since it does not recognize the existence of immaterial or unobservable phenomena. It is also anti-humanist, in that it does not grant an exceptional status to human beings. According to the strict naturalistic view, every human action has a cause on the physical plane. Thus, their behavior is completely determined by the laws of cause and effect in the material world. Naturalism in art originated in France, and had its direct theoretical basis in the critical approach of Hippolyte Taine. This French critic and historian sought to develop a scientific method for the analysis of literature. In his literary criticism History of English literature , Taine tried to show that the culture and character of a nation are products of material causes, and that art is the product of three factors: race, age and environment.
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