News is information about current events. This may be provided through many different media : word of mouth , printing, postal systems, broadcasting, electronic communication, or through the testimony of observers and witnesses to events. Common topics for news reports include war, government, politics, education, health, the environment, economy, business, fashion, and entertainment, as well as athletic events, quirky or unusual events. Government proclamations, concerning royal ceremonies, laws, taxes, public health, and criminals, have been dubbed news since ancient times. Technological and social developments, often driven by government communication and espionage networks, have increased the speed with which news can spread, as well as influenced its content. The genre of news as we know it today is closely associated with the newspaper. The English word "news" developed in the 14th century as a special use of the plural form of "new". Jessica Garretson Finch is credited with coining the phrase "current events" while teaching at Barnard College in the s. As its name implies, "news" typically connotes the presentation of new information. To make the news, an ongoing process must have some "peg", an event in time which anchors it to the present moment. Another corollary of the newness of news is that, as new technology enables new media to disseminate news more quickly, 'slower' forms of communication may move away from 'news' towards 'analysis'. According to some theories, "news" is whatever the news industry sells. Most purveyors of news value impartiality, neutrality, and objectivity , despite the inherent difficulty of reporting without political bias. Michael Schudson has argued that before the era of World War I and the concomitant rise of propaganda , journalists were not aware of the concept of bias in reporting , let alone actively correcting for it. Paradoxically, another property commonly attributed to news is sensationalism , the disproportionate focus on, and exaggeration of, emotive stories for public consumption. Newsworthiness is defined as a subject having sufficient relevance to the public or a special audience to warrant press attention or coverage. Evidence suggests that cultures around the world have found a place for people to share stories about interesting new information. Among Zulus , Mongolians , Polynesians, and American Southerners, anthropologists have documented the practice of questioning travelers for news as a matter of priority. The news is also transmitted in public gathering places, such as the Greek forum and the Roman baths. Starting in England , coffeehouses served as important sites for the spread of news, even after telecommunications became widely available. The history of the coffee houses is traced from Arab countries, which was introduced in England in the 16th century. Travelers on pilgrimages to Mecca traditionally stay at caravanserais , roadside inns, along the way, and these places have naturally served as hubs for gaining news of the world. Before the invention of newspapers in the early 17th century, official government bulletins and edicts were circulated at times in some centralized empires. These were carved in metal or stone and posted in public places. Specially sanctioned messengers have been recognized in Vietnamese culture , among the Khasi people in India, and in the Fox and Winnebago cultures of the American midwest. The Zulu Kingdom used runners to quickly disseminate news. In West Africa, news can be spread by griots. In most cases, the official spreaders of news have been closely aligned with holders of political power. Town criers were a common means of conveying information to citydwellers. In thirteenth-century Florence, criers known as banditori arrived in the market regularly, to announce political news, to convoke public meetings, and to call the populace to arms. In and —, laws were established governing their appointment, conduct, and salary. These laws stipulated how many times a banditoro was to repeat a proclamation forty and where in the city they were to read them. Under the Ottoman Empire , official messages were regularly distributed at mosques, by traveling holy men, and by secular criers.
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